Cancer Aware

What You Need To Know About Cervical Cancer And How To Prevent It


January is the global Cervical Cancer Awareness Month and Cancer Aware Nigeria, a Lagos based cancer intervention non-profit has been running an intensive campaign to educate Nigerians about cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening options, e.t.c. They have put together a Cervical Cancer Fact sheet.

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops on the cervix of a woman. The cervix is the narrow part of the lower uterus, which is often referred to as the neck of the womb.
Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix start to grow out of control. Cervical cancer is almost 100% preventable, yet it is the 2nd most common cancer among women in Nigeria.

What is the main risk factor for Cervical Cancer?

Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus or HPV for short. HPV is the most common ​sexually transmitted infection.
Most sexually active individuals – male and female will get it at one point in their lives without knowing. In most cases, the body’s immune system usually clears it. However, in some cases, some types of HPV can go on to cause cervical cancer in women

It can persist in the woman without showing any signs or symptoms, in some cases for years. In addition to cervical cancer, HPV can also cause cancer of the vulva and vagina in women, penile cancer in men, and cancers of the anus, mouth and throat in both men and women.

How does HPV cause Cervical Cancer?

High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) leads to cancer because they cause changes in the cells of the cervix. Initially, these are precancerous changes that can be detected with screening tests.

Over time, the precancerous cells can develop into cancer cells.After cancer has developed, it then spreads within the cervix and eventually to surrounding areas.

What are the symptoms of HPV?

Unfortunately, HPV has no signs or symptoms. This makes it hard to know if you or your partner is infected.

Can Cervical Cancer be prevented?

Yes. Cervical cancer can be prevented.

In fact, it is one of the most preventable cancers.

How can Cervical Cancer be prevented?

The are several ways that cervical cancer can be prevented. One is by regular screening and another is by the HPV vaccine.

There are several types of cervical screening tests. These include (1) The Pap Test (2) VIA (Visual Inspection with acetic acid) (3) HPV Testing These tests are often able to detect abnormal cells before they turn into cancer cells.

What is a Pap Test?

It is one of the ways cervical cancer can be prevented and detected. It is a quick and painless procedure (usually done in minutes) where cells are collected from the cervix. These samples are then sent to the lab where they are looked at under the microscope to find any changes or abnormalities.

Do I need a Cervical Screening test?

If you are female and are sexually active (even if you have had only one partner), you should consider getting a cervical screening test done.

Are there any risks associated with Cervical Screening tests?

The answer is no. There are no medical risks associated with cervical screening tests.They are simple, quick and essentially painless exercises.

It is not having regular screening as an adult woman that leads to the great risk of developing cervical cancer.

What are the symptoms of Cervical Cancer?

The most common symptom of cervical cancer is irregular vaginal bleeding.This may occur in several forms. One is between menstrual periods and even sometimes after sexual intercourse.

Also, any form of vaginal bleeding in women who have passed menopause and who no longer have menstrual periods is a big warning sign of cervical cancer.

Please note that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than cervical cancer, however ladies, if you have any of these symptoms, please speak to your doctor immediately.

In conclusion, Cervical Cancer is preventable. Ladies, speak to your doctor about getting a cervical screening test done.

If you would like to get educated on cancer prevention and early detection or find out about where you can get screened, then sign up for our newsletter at​         or email us at They can also be reached on 08188046560


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